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400                  HISTORY OF PERSIA                  CHAP
new situation created by the Russian and French advances
was deplorable and was destined to bear bitter fruit.
The Downfall of Haji Ibrahim.—Fath AH Shah, whc
owed his throne to Haji Ibrahim, became seriously
alarmed at his power, which, he feared, might result in
his dethronement. Probably, too, he was influenced by
his uncle's advice. Whatever the exact causes, it was
decided to put an end to the King-Maker. By a pre-
concerted plan all the members of his family were seized
at their various seats of government and put to death,
Haji Ibrahim himself being thrown into a cauldron of oil.
The only son that was spared was a sickly boy, who not-
withstanding his indifferent health lived to be the ancestor
of the Kawam-ul-Mulk family. Haji Ibrahim was a great
personality and a typical Persian of the period. One of
many stories told about him is that when Malcolm brought
the potato, then unknown in Persia, as a gift, explaining
that it would be of great value as an article of food to the
people, the Vizier observed that he did not see how it
could be a suitable gift for him, and that he would much
prefer some rolls of English cloth.
The Second Rebellion of Husayn Kuli Khan.—Ths Shah's
brother, who was Governor of Kashan, once more made a
bid for the throne. He obtained possession of Isfahan by
means of a forged order, and then proceeded to raise an
army in the Bakhtiari country. Fath Ali Shah acted with
considerable promptitude. He rode to Isfahan (a distance
of 280 miles) in four days, and, leaving a force to besiege
it, set out in pursuit of his brother. Hearing that the
rebel was making for the Turkish frontier, he detached a
force to intercept him, and the Pretender in despair took
sanctuary at Kum.
The Execution of Nadir Mirza, A.H. 1216 (i 802).—The
folly of Nadir Mirza brought about the final downfall of
his family. After his pardon, recorded in the previous
chapter, the Shah, with extraordinary leniency, permitted
him to retain the governorship of Khorasajn, but its chiefs
complained so bitterly of his tyranny that Fath Ali felt
bound to intervene. When the city was besieged, Nadir
Mirza looted the shrine to pay his troops, and with his